Covenants With Israel-Up Close and Personal

CovenantScripture PassageParticipants and Provision
Abrahamic(Genesis 12:1-3) 1Now the LORD said to Abram, "Go forth from your country…To the land which I will show you; 2And I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you, And make your name great; And so you shall be a blessing; 3And I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse. And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed."God promises Abraham and his descendants three things: LAND – SEED – BLESSING. The land promise is elaborated upon in Genesis 15. This promise is reiterated in Genesis 13, 15, 17 and 22 and is viewed as ultimately unconditional. The other covenants mentioned in this chart can be seen as extensions of this initial covenant with Israel.
Mosaic(Exodus 19:1-8) 4"'You yourselves have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles' wings, and brought you to Myself. 5Now then, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be My own possession among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine; 6and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.' These are the words that you shall speak to the sons of Israel." 7So Moses came and called the elders of the people, and set before them all these words which the LORD had commanded him. 8All the people answered together and said, "All that the LORD has spoken we will do!"Under the Mosaic Covenant the Law was given. The Law's purpose was to reveal sin. However mercycame by means of the Levitical sacrifices. They provided a system whereby sin was temporarily "covered."It was God's will for Israel to be a kingdom of priests. This was not fulfilled under the Mosaic Covenant because Israel did not obey God and keep the Mosaic Covenant. Under the Mosaic Covenant, the Aaronic priesthood was created. Only Israelites from the tribe of Levi were eligible. When Jesus came he claimed to fulfill or satisfy what the law required. He was both perfect priest and sacrifice.
Davidic(2 Samuel 7:8-16) 8"Now therefore, thus you shall say to My servant David, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts, "I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, to be ruler over My people Israel. 9"I have been with you wherever you have gone and have cut off all your enemies from before you; and I will make you a great name, like the names of the great men who are on the earth. 10"I will also appoint a place for My people Israel and will plant them, that they may live in their own place and not be disturbed again, nor will the wicked afflict them any more as formerly, 11even from the day that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel; and I will give you rest from all your enemies. The LORD also declares to you that the LORD will make a house for you. 12"When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom. 13"He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14"I will be a father to him and he will be a son to Me; when he commits iniquity, I will correct him with the rod of men and the strokes of the sons of men, 15but My lovingkindness shall not depart from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you. 16"Your house and your kingdom shall endure before Me forever; your throne shall be established forever.'"God promised to establish the throne of the Davidic kingdom forever. It is an amplification of the "seed" aspect of the Abrahamic Covenant. The land of Israel (promised in the Abrahamic covenant) is also mentioned in verse 10, where God promised to "plant" Israel permanently in the land. God confirmed his covenant in Psalm 89:34-37. In the New Testament portion of Scripture, Jesus claims to be the fulfillment of this promised seed of David, the Messiah.
"New"(Jeremiah 31:31-34) 31"Behold, days are coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, 32not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them," declares the LORD. 33"But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days," declares the LORD, "I will put My law within them and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 34"They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them," declares the LORD, "for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more."The new covenant amplifies the "blessing" component of the Abrahamic covenant, including the fact that "all nations of the earth will be blessed." Jesus initiated the new covenant in the upper room on the evening prior to his arrest and crucifixion and resurrection from the dead. The New Testament portion of Scripture quotes the Tanakh, saying, 8"The Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, 'ALL THE NATIONS WILL BE BLESSED IN YOU.'" (Galatians 3:8)