|IN O.T. ACCOUNTS||AT LAST SUPPER AND/OR IN EARLY CHURCH||IN RABBINIC TRADITION||IN CONTEMPORARY JUDAISM||AS APPLIED IN THE CHURCH TODAY|
|BONDAGE AND EXODUS||God's dealings with Israel — yearly celebration and remembrance (Ex. 12:24-27)||Freedom in Christ from Bondage of sin (Romans 6:18)||"In every generation let each man look on himself as though he himself came forth out of Egypt" (individuals to personalize the meaning of Passover)||In the Soviet era, the plight of Russian Jewry was seen as a counterpart to ancient bondage in Egypt. Reform Judaism especially has always related Passover to general hopes for freedom for all peoples.||God as Redeemer of lost humanity|
|THE LAMB||One of the 3 items to be eaten at the Passover meal (Ex. 12:8)||Christ is the Passover lamb (I Cor. 5:7)||No tradition because not eaten at Passover since destruction of the Temple in 70 A.D.||Among Ashkenazic Jews (those of Eastern European origin) chicken often substituted; Sephardic Jews (those of Mediterranean, Spanish, and Middle Eastern origin) may continue to eat lamb||Christ portrayed as "Lamb of God"|
|THE MAROR (Bitter Herbs)||One of the 3 items commanded in Exodus 12:8||May have been the "sop" which Jesus handed to Judas||Represents the bitterness of Egyptian slavery||Eaten at the contemporary seder; given the same significance as in rabbinic tradition||–|
|THE UNLEAVENED BREAD||One of the 3 items commanded in Exodus 12:8 (called matzo)||The body of Christ given in sacrifice (Luke 22:19);* Absence of sin (leaven) (I Cor. 5:8)||Represents the haste with which the Israelites left Egypt (they could not wait for their bread to rise)||Eaten at the contemporary seder and 7 days following in place of leavened bread; also year-round non-ceremonial use; given the same significance as in rabbinic tradition||Many churches use matzo as Communion element|
|THE CHAROSETH (A sweet mixture of chopped apples, nuts, wine and cinnamon)||–||Another possibility for Judas' "sop"||Represents the mortar used by the Israelite slaves to make bricks for Pharaoh||Eaten at the contemporary seder; given the same significance as in rabbinic tradition||–|
|THE CEREMONIAL CUPS||–||The cup before the Last Supper (Luke 22:17-18); The cup after dinner (Luke 22:20); The cup of blessing represents the blood of Christ (I Cor. 10:16)||Represents the four phrases in Exodus 6:6-7: "I will bring you out"; "I will deliver you"; "I will redeem you"; "I will take you to me for a people"||Four cups taken at the contemporary seder; given the same significance as in rabbinic tradition||One of the elements of Communion|
|THE KARPAS (Greens)||–||Probably eaten at the Last Supper, but not specifically mentioned (greens were a likely part of festive meals during that time period)||Dipped in salt water, they represent the lives of the Israelite slaves immersed in tears||Eaten at the contemporary seder; given the same significance as in rabbinic tradition||–|
* Some Jewish scholars believe the afikomen ceremony may reflect an early messianic symbolism. Many Jewish believers today see this ceremony of breaking, burying, and retrieving a piece of matzo as a picture of Jesus’ death, burial and resurrection.
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