Here is a collection of many commonly used “Jewish” words—both Hebrew and Yiddish—and anything else your Hebrew school teacher would be proud of you for knowing.
challa: ceremonial Sabbath bread; egg bread
cheder: literally, one room school; a religious school for elementary-level Jewish children
mikvah: ritual bath
minyan: quorum of at least ten men for prayer
mitzvah: commandment, or righteous deed
shiddach: match for a bride or groom
tallit: prayer shawl